Transparency (Open Budget Index) 16/100 

The Government of Egypt provides the public with scant budget information.

Public Participation 8/100 

The Government of Egypt is weak in providing the public with opportunities to engage in the budget process.

Budget Oversight

By legislature 0/100

Budget oversight by the legislature in Egypt is nonexistent.1

By auditor 42/100

Budget oversight by the supreme audit institution in Egypt is limited.


Improving Transparency

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve budget transparency:

  • Publish in a timely manner an Executive’s Budget Proposal.
  • Publish an Audit Report.
  • Publish a Mid-Year Review.[1]
Improving Participation

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to improve budget participation:

  • Establish credible and effective mechanisms (i.e., public hearings, surveys, focus groups) for capturing a range of public perspectives on budget matters.
  • Reinstate the legislature and hold legislative hearings on the budgets of specific ministries, departments, and agencies at which testimony from the public is heard.
  • Establish formal mechanisms for the public to assist the supreme audit institution to formulate its audit program and to participate in audit investigations.
Improving Oversight

Egypt should prioritize the following actions to strengthen budget oversight:

  • Reinstate the legislature and establish a specialized budget research office for the legislature.
  • Ensure the Executive’s Budget Proposal is provided to legislators at least three months before the start of the budget year.
  • Require legislative or judicial approval to remove the head of the supreme audit institution.


[1] According to the Open Budget Survey Tracker (, the 2014-2015 Mid-Year Review, which should have been published by 31 March 2015, is considered not publicly available. The 2013-2014 Mid-Year Review, which was assessed as part of the Open Budget Survey 2015, was published in a timely manner.