Based on work conducted by more than 250 of the world’s leading development practitioners, this report offers a practical plan for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the 2015 deadline. The paper is divided into four parts. Part one describes the importance of the MDGs and gives an explanation of the varied progress toward the goals. Part two provides recommendations to be implemented at the country level. Part three presents a guide for the international system’s support for the country-level processes. Part four analyzes the costs and benefits of achieving the MDGs. Chapter 7 focuses on the issue of governance and suggests methods for promoting transparency and accountability in public expenditure, highlighting the key roles that local governments, civil society, parliament, the private sector, and multilateral agencies must play.